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1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 1: Of the Holy Scriptures - Commentary

...="#footnote-marker-7-1"^ Kevin DeYoung. Taking God At His Word: Why the Bible Is Knowable, Necessary, and Enough, and What That Means for You and Me. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2014). p. 98.
  • a, b John Gill. Exposition of the Entire Bible. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ John MacArthur. The MacArthur Study Bible: English Standard Version. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2010). p. 1367.
  • ^ Matthew Henry. Commentary On The Whole Bible (Full). By default in The Word. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church: With Modifications From The Editio Typica. (Double Day; 2nd edition, 2003). p. 31, number 80. Footnote reference removed.
  • ^ Ibid., number 82.
  • ^ Gregg R. Allison. Historical Theology: An Introduction To Christian Doctrine: A Companion To Wayne Grudem's Systematic Theology. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011). p. 44.
  • ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion. 1.7.2
  • ^ John M. Frame. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Christian Belief. (P&R Publishing, 2014). p. 595.
  • a, b Alan M. Stibbs, etc. The Scripture Cannot Be Broken: Twentieth Century Writings On The Doctrine Of Inerrancy. Edited By John Macarthur. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2013). p. 205.
  • ^ Wayne Grudem. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994). pp. 74-75.
  • a, b, c, d, e John Calvin. Commentaries. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ Alan Stibbs, Scripture Cannot Be Broken, pp. 207-208.
  • a, b John MacArthur. The MacArthur Study Bible: English Standard Version. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2010). p. 1904.
  • a, b, c, d, e, f Philip Schaff. A Popular Commentary on the New Testament. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc. 
  • a, b, c Joseph Henry Thayer's Greek Definitions. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. See reference for the Strong's number.
  • ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church: With Modifications From The Editio Typica. (Double Day; 2nd edition, 2003). Number 120, p. 40.
  • ^ Aaron Brake. Is the Apocrypha Scripture?
  • ^ Flavius Josephus. The Complete Works of Josephus. Translated by William Whiston. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1998). Against Apion, 1:8, pp. 929-930. Verse divisions omitted.
  • ^ Gregg Allison, p. 38, n. 3. Numbering within brackets supplied by me.
  • ^ Babylonian Talmud. Mas. Yoma 9b. The words of R. Abba. Words within bracket added by me because of the footnote attached.
  • ^ Good News Translation (GNT). 1 Maccabees 4:41-46.
  • ^ . 1 Maccabees 9:23-27.
  • ^ Grudem, Systematic Theology. p. 57, footnote references removed.
  • ^ John Piper. A Peculiar Glory: How the Christian Scriptures Reveal Their Complete Truthfulness. p. 48.
  • ^ Bruce, The Canon of Scripture, 31, his italics. As quoted in Adam Brake, Is the Apocrypha Scripture?
  • ^ Eusebius. Ecclesiastical History. Book IV, chapter 26.
  • ^ Ibid. chapter 22:8.
  • ^ Ibid. n. 1244.
  • ^ Clements First Letter to the Corinthians, chapters 57.
  • ^ Eusebius. chapter 26, n. 1314.
  • ^ Gregg Allison, pp. 48-49. Footnote references removed. Content with brackets not mine, but Dr. Allison’s.
  • a, b Roy E. Knuteson. Why We Reject The Apocrypha. p. 6.
  • ^ Judith 1. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.
  • ^ Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha, 50-51. As quoted in Adam Brake, Is the Apocrypha Scripture?
  • ^ Geisler and MacKenzie, Roman Catholics and Evangelicals, 167. As quoted in Adam Brake, Is the Apocrypha Scripture?
  • ^ John Calvin. Institutes o...

  • 1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 22: Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath Day - Commentary

    ..., g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ John MacArthur. The MacArthur Study Bible: English Standard Version. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2010). p. 1544, note on John 4:24.
  • ^ Joseph Henry Thayer's Greek Definitions. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. G1479.
  • a, b Tim Challies – Worship - Elements and Circumstances
  • ^ Wayne Grudem. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Zondervan (1994). p. 376.
  • ^ Keach’s Catechism.
  • ^ J. I. Packer. Concise Theology: A Guide To Historic Christian Beliefs. (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 1993). p. 187.
  • ^ Grudem, Systematic Theology. p. 379.
  • a, b, c, d Jamieson, Fausset, Brown. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (Full). Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • a, b Charles J. Ellicott. Commentary For English Readers. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ Joseph Henry Thayer's Greek Definitions. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. G1651.
  • ^ The Free Dictionary. Exhort.
  • ^ Webster’s Dictionary 1828. Psalm.
  • ^ Jonathan Edwards. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/edwards/works1.ix.iv.html
  • a, b, c, d, e, f Stephen Pribble. The Regulative Principle And Singing In Worship.
  • a, b W. Gary Crampton. Exclusive Psalmody.
  • a, b Pliny the Younger and Trajan on the Christians.
  • a, b John Peter Lange. Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal, and Homiletical (25 volumes). Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ Apostolic Constitutions. Book II, section 7, paragraph LIX (59).
  • ^ Ken Puls. Singing Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual Songs. Founders Blog.
  • ^ Waldron, Going Beyond The Five Points. p. 95.
  • ^ Jonathan Edwards. The Works of Jonathan Edwards, Volume 2. Revised and corrected by Edward Hickman. (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1974 edition). p. 94.
  • a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h A.W. Pink. The Christian Sabbath.
  • ^ C. P. Arand, C. L. Blomberg, S. MacCarty, & J. A. Pipa. Perspectives on the Sabbath: Four Views. Ed. C. J. Donato. (Nashville: B & H Pub. Group, 2011). p. 120.
  • ^ Ibid. p. 121.
  • a, b, c, d, e Archibald Alexander. A Brief Compendium of Bible Truth. The Lord’s Day. 1846.
  • ^ Samuel E. Waldron. Lectures On The Lord’s Day. 2007. p. 29.
  • ^ Perspectives. p. 12.
  • ^ Waldron, The Lord’s Day. p. 44.
  • ^ Perspectives. pp. 122-123.
  • ^ Waldron, Lectures On The Lord’s Day. p. 46, footnote removed. The content between brackets is mine.
  • ^ Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Sabbath
  • a, b A.A. Hodge. Sabbath, The Day Changed: The Sabbath Preserved.
  • ^ John Owen. A Treatise On The Sabbath. (Forgotton Books, 2015). pp. 35-36.
  • a, b, c, d John Murray. The Sabbath Institution: Obligation, Sanctity and Observance. p. 2.
  • ^ Robert Paul Martin. The Christian Sabbath: Its Redemptive-Historical Foundation, Present Obligation, and Practical Observance. (Trinity Pulpit Press, 2016). p. 38.
  • ^ Francis Nigel Lee. The Covenantal Sabbath. (London, ILQ: Lord's Day Observance Society. 1974; out of print). p. 147.
  • a, b, c, d J.C. Ryle. Sabbath: A Day To Keep.
  • ^ Perspectives. p. 21.
  • ^ Martin, The Christian Sabbath. p. 28.
  • ^ Lee, The Covenantal Sabbath. p. 64.
  • a, b, c, d B.B. Warfield. The Foundations Of The Sabbath In The Word Of God.
  • ^ Murray, p. 3.
  • ^ Ibid. pp. 1-2.
  • ^ John Giarrizzo. The Lord’s Day Still Is. Bookl...

  • 1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 19: Of the Law of God - Commentary

    ...ata-footnote-id="rf8b0"^ Calvin, Institutes 2.8.48.
  • ^ Ibid., 2:8:49.
  • a, b, c Watson, Ten Commandments. Chapter 2.10
  • ^ John MacArthur. The MacArthur Study Bible: English Standard Version. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2010). p. 1789, note on Colossians 3:5.
  • ^ Kenneth L. Barker, Donald W. Burdick, & Kenneth Boa. Zondervan NASB Study Bible. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House., 1999). p. 1724, note on Ephesians 5:5.
  • ^ Calvin, Institutes. 2.8.51.
  • ^ C. P. Arand, C. L. Blomberg, S. MacCarty, & J. A. Pipa. Perspectives on the Sabbath. Ed. C. J. Donato. (Nashville: B & H Pub. Group, 2011). p. 125.
  • ^ HCSB Study Bible, Holman Christian Standard Bible. (Nashville, Tenn. 2010). p. 2058.
  • ^ William D. Mounce. https://billmounce.com/greek-dictionary/dogma
  • ^ Perspectives on the Sabbath: Four Views. p. 146.
  • ^ Ross, From The Finger Of God. pp. 277-278.
  • ^ GotQuestions.org. What does the Bible say about the death penalty / capital punishment?
  • ^ Ross, From The Finger Of God. p. 298.
  • ^ Perspectives on the Sabbath: Four Views. p. 125.
  • ^ R. Barcellos, S. Waldron, E. Blackburn, & P. R. Martin. Going Beyond The Five Points. Ed. by Rob Ventura. (San Bernardino, CA: [CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform], 2015). p. 31.
  • ^ William D. Mounce, καταλύω
  • ^ Mickelson's Enhanced Strong's Greek and Hebrew Dictionaries. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. G2647.
  • ^ Philip Ross. From The Finger of God. p. 200.
  • a, b, c Thayer's Greek Lexicon. G4137
  • a, b TDNT Dictionary. Taken from Bible Works. Number 639, p. 870.
  • ^ Ernest C. Reisinger. Law and Gospel. Chapter 11: The Law and the Savior
  • ^ Arthur W. Pink. The Sermon On The Mount. Chapter 6: Christ and the Law
  • ^ Ross, From The Finger of God. p. 202.
  • ^ Ibid. 215.
  • ^ Mickelson's Enhanced Strong's Greek and Hebrew Dictionaries. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. G1096.
  • ^ Ross, From The Finger of God. pp. 218-219.
  • ^ Ibid. 219.
  • a, b, c, d, e, f Jamieson, Fausset, Brown. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (Full). Taken from the TheWord Bible SoftwareIn loc.
  • ^ William D. Mounce. τηρέω.
  • ^ Joseph Henry Thayer's Greek Definitions. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. G2673.
  • ^ BDAG Lexicon. Taken from Bible Works. Number 3754.
  • a, b, c Matthew Henry. Commentary On The Whole Bible (Full). By default in The Word. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ The Reformation Study Bible ESV. Ed. R.C. Sproul. Ligonier Ministries (2015). p. 1984, note on Romans 3:31.
  • ^ John MacArthur. The MacArthur Study Bible: English Standard Version. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2010). p. 1660.
  • ^ Ibid. p. 1661.
  • ^ Reformation Study Bible ESV. p. 1991, note on Romans 7:14.
  • ^ See Joy Community Fellowship. How is the Righteous Requirement of the Law Fulfilled in us? 
  • a, b Philip Schaff. A Popular Commentary on the New Testament. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • a, b, c The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ R. Barcellos, S. Waldron, E. Blackburn, & Paul R. Martin. Going Beyond The Five Points. Ed. by Rob Ventura. (San Bernardino, CA: [CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform], 2015). p. 38.
  • ^ Ibid. p. 39.
  • ^ As quoted in Ross, From The Finger of God. p. 340.
  • a, b Arthur W. Pink. The Law And The Saint
  • ^ Joseph Henry Thayer's Greek Definitions. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. G2570.
  • ^ Joseph S. Exell, H.D.M Spence. The Pulpit Commentary. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc...

  • 1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 3: Of God's Decree - Commentary

    ...re Bible. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ I’ve taken a look at Joseph Henry Thayer's Greek Definitions and Mickelson's Enhanced Strong's Greek and Hebrew Dictionaries. Both from the TheWord Bible Software.
  • ^ John MacArthur. The MacArthur Study Bible: English Standard Version. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2010). p. 1848.
  • ^ Matthew Poole. English Annotations on the Holy Bible. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • a, b, c, d Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • a, b, c, d John Calvin. Commentaries. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • a, b John Piper. The Sovereignty of God: “My Counsel Shall Stand, and I Will Accomplish All My Purpose”
  • ^ Strong's H7451 - ra`. Blue Letter Bible.
  • ^ CARM. Decretive Will.
  • ^ Ibid. Preceptive Will.
  • ^ The Holy Bible: English Standard Version: The ESV Study Bible. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles. 2008). p. 2089.
  • ^ Where divine sovereignty meets human responsibility.
  • ^ Sam E. Waldron. A Modern Exposition Of The 1689 Baptist Confession Of Faith. (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 2013). pp. 80-81
  • ^ Wayne Grudem. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994). p. 684
  • ^ John Calvin. Institutes Of the Christian Religion. 3.21.5.
  • ^ Letter to Bishop Mandell Creighton, April 5, 1887 published in Historical Essays and Studies, edited by J. N. Figgis and R. V. Laurence (London: Macmillan, 1907) Taken from Wikipedia
  • ^ John Calvin. Institutes of the Christian Religion. 3:21:1 (section heading).
  • ^ Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology. p. 670.
  • ^ James R. White. The Potter's Freedom: A Defense of the Reformation and a Rebuttal to Norman Geisler's Chosen But Free. (Calvary Press Publishing. 2009, New Revised Edition). p. 39
  • ^ David N. Steele, Curtis C. Thomas, S. Lance Quinn. The Five Points of Calvinism: Defined, Defended, and Documented. (Phillipsburg, N.J.: P & R Publications. 2004). p. 6.
  • ^ Ibid. pp. 5-6.
  • ^ John Calvin, Institutes. 3.21.3.
  • a, b Question: "Monergism vs. synergism—which view is correct?" GotQuestions Ministries. 
  • ^ What Is Monergism? Monergism.com. 
  • ^ The Century Dictionary's as cited in What Is Monergism?
  • ^ Synergism.
  • ^ Systematic Grudem, Systematic Theology. p. 723.
  • ^ John Calvin, Institutes. 3.21.1.
  • ...

    1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 17: Of The Perseverance of the Saints - Commentary
    The 1689 Second Baptist Confession Of Faith Confession Commentary Reformed Baptist Perseverance Of The Saints Preservation Of The Saints Assurance Of Salvation Eternal Security Apostasy Falling Away. Hebrews 6

    ...et/"TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ John MacArthur. The MacArthur Study Bible: English Standard Version. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2010). p. 1812, note on 1:3.
  • ^ Mickelson's Enhanced Strong's Greek and Hebrew Dictionaries. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. G5461.
  • a, b, c, d, e John Owen. Exposition of Hebrews. in loc. See also Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary on this word here.
  • ^ “And for this [rite] we have learned from the apostles this reason. Since at our birth we were born without our own knowledge or choice, by our parents coming together, and were brought up in bad habits and wicked training; in order that we may not remain the children of necessity and of ignorance, but may become the children of choice and knowledge, and may obtain in the water the remission of sins formerly committed, there is pronounced over him who chooses to be born again, and has repented of his sins, the name of God the Father and Lord of the universe; he who leads to the laver the person that is to be washed calling him by this name alone. For no one can utter the name of the ineffable God; and if any one dare to say that there is a name, he raves with a hopeless madness. And this washing is called illumination, because they who learn these things are illuminated in their understandings. And in the name of Jesus Christ, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and in the name of the Holy Ghost, who through the prophets foretold all things about Jesus, he who is illuminated is washed.” Justin Martyr. Apology, chapter 61.
  • ^ Grudem, Systematic Theology. Chapter 40, p. 797.
  • ^ Matthew Henry. Complete Commentary. Hebrews 6.
  • a, b, c Arthur W. Pink. Exposition of Hebrews. Chapter 24
  • ^ Grudem, Systematic Theology. pp. 797-798, n. 15.
  • ^ John Owen writes on the word “taste”: “The expression of tasting is metaphorical, and signifies no more but to make a trial or experiment; for so we do by tasting, naturally and properly, of that which is tendered unto us to eat. We taste such things by the sense given us naturally to discern our food; and then either receive or refuse them, as we find occasion. It doth not, therefore, include eating, much less digestion and turning into nourishment of what is so tasted; for its nature being only thereby discerned, it may be refused, yea, though we like its relish and savor, upon some other consideration.”
  • ^ “Ephesians 5:7 uses a closely related word (symmetochos, a compound of metochos and the preposition syn [”with”]) when Paul warns Christians about the sinful acts of unbelievers and says, “do not associate with them” (Eph. 5:7). He is not concerned that their total nature will be transformed by the unbelievers, but simply that they will associate with them and have their own witness compromised and their own lives influenced to some degree by them.” Grudem. Systematic. P. 798.
  • ^ Grudem, Systematic Theology. p. 798.
  • a, b, c, d Sam Storms. Hebrews 6:4-6 And The Possibility Of Apostasy
  • ^ John M. Frame (2014). Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Christian Belief. P&R Publishing. Chapter 44, p. 1001.
  • ^ Albert Barnes. Notes on the New Testament. Hebrews 6:4
  • ^ A.W. Pink. Exposition of Hebrews. Chapter 26
  • ^ Grudem, Systematic Theology. p. 800.
  • ^ Ibid., p. 801, footnote references removed.
  • ^ John Owen. Exposition of Hebrews. Hebrews 10:28-29
  • ^ Mounce, Ex...

  • 1 Timothy 4:10, 'Savior of all men'
    Calvinism Limited Atonement Election Sovereignty ESV Study Bible ESV MacArthur Study Bible HCSB Study Bible Bob Utley Matthew Henry

    ...4) It means “the helper of all people,” taking Greek Sōtēr, “Savior,” to refer not to forgiveness of sins but to God’s common grace by which God helps and protects people in need. (5) It means “the Savior of all kinds of people, not Jews only but both Jews and Greeks.” In any case, the emphasis is on God’s care for the unsaved world, and in the flow of the letter Paul is stressing once more (cf. 2:3–5) that God’s will that people would be saved is the basis of the universal mission (cf. Matt. 28:19–20). On God as “Savior,” see note on 2 Tim. 1:8–10.

    The ESV MacArthur Study Bible provides a commentary about this verse:[4]

    1 Tim. 4:10 hope. Believers are saved in hope and live and serve in light of that hope of eternal life (Titus 1:2; 3:7; see note on Rom. 5:2). Working to the point of exhaustion and suffering rejection and persecution are acceptable because believers understand they are doing God’s work—which is the work of salvation. That makes it worth all of the sacrifices (Phil. 1:12–18, 27–30; 2:17; Col. 1:24–25; 2 Tim. 1:6–12; 2:3–4, 9–10; 4:5–8). the Savior of all people, especially of those who believe. Paul is obviously not teaching universalism, that all people will be saved in the spiritual and eternal sense, since the rest of Scripture clearly teaches that God will not save everyone. Most will reject him and spend eternity in hell (Matt. 25:41, 46; Rev. 20:11–15). Yet, the Greek word translated “especially” must mean that all people enjoy God’s salvation in some way like those who believe enjoy his salvation. The simple explanation is that God is the Savior of all people, only in a temporal sense, while of believers in an eternal sense. Paul’s point is that while God graciously delivers believers from sin’s condemnation and penalty because he was their substitute (2 Cor. 5:21), all people experience some earthly benefits from the goodness of God. Those benefits are: 1) common grace—a term that describes God’s goodness shown to all mankind universally (Ps. 145:9) in restraining sin (Rom. 2:15) and judgment (Rom. 2:3–6), maintaining order in society through government (Rom. 13:1–5), enabling man to appreciate beauty and goodness (Ps. 50:2), and showering him with temporal blessings (Matt. 5:45; Acts 14:15–17; 17:25); 2) compassion—the broken-hearted, loving pity that God shows to undeserving, unregenerate sinners (Ex. 34:6, 7; Ps. 86:5; Dan. 9:9; Matt. 23:37; Luke 19:41–44; cf. Isa. 16:11–13; Jer. 48:35–37); 3) admonition to repent—God constantly warns sinners of their fate, demonstrating the heart of a compassionate Creator who has no pleasure in the death of the wicked (Ezek. 18:30–32; 33:11); and 4) the gospel invitation—salvation in Christ is indiscriminately offered to all (Matt. 11:28–29; 22:2–14; John 6:35–40; Rev. 22:17; cf. John 5:39–40). God is, by nature, a saving God. That is, he finds no pleasure in the death of sinners. His saving character is revealed even in how he deals with those who will never believe, but only in these four temporal ways. See notes on 1 Tim. 2:6.

    The HCSB Study Bible explains:[5]

    The statement that Jesus is the Savior of everyone, especially of those who believe may seem to teach universalism, the belief that every person will eventually go to heaven regardless of whether they accept Christ. But the rest of Scripture clearly denies this idea. The Greek word tra......


    1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 6: Of the Fall of Man, Of Sin, And of the Punishment Thereof - Commentary
    The 1689 Second Baptist Confession Of Faith Confession Commentary Reformed Baptist Chapter 6 Fall Of Man Sin Condemnation Total Depravity Total Inability Original Sin Federal Headship

    ...ww.amazon.com/Modern-Exposition-Baptist-Confession-Faith/dp/0852349173/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1425729332&sr=8-1&keywords=sam+waldron">Modern Exposition of 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith which was apparently supplied by the Westminster Confession of Faith 1646.
  • ^ Wayne Grudem. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994). p. 494, n. 9.
  • ^ John MacArthur. The MacArthur Study Bible: English Standard Version. (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2010). p. 1657.
  • ^ John Gill. Exposition of the Entire Bible. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • a, b Philip Schaff. A Popular Commentary on the New Testament. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ David N. Steele, Curtis C. Thomas, S. Lance Quinn. The Five Points of Calvinism: Defined, Defended, and Documented. (Phillipsburg, N.J.: P & R Publications. 2004). pp. 5-6.
  • a, b John Gill. Exposition of the Entire Bible. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ Charles J. Ellicott. Commentary For English Readers. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • a, b Matthew Poole. English Annotations on the Holy Bible. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ Joseph Henry Thayer's Greek Definitions. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. See reference for the Strong's number.
  • a, b The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Edited by J. J. S. Perowne. Taken from the TheWord Bible Software. In loc.
  • ^ The Free Dictionary. Slave.
  • ^ John Piper. A Baptist Catechism
  • ^ Robert Robinson, Come Thou Fount Of Every Blessing.
  • ...

    God's Absolute Sovereignty: Resources used
    Calvinism Election Predestination Limited Atonement Mercy Sovereignty Verse List God Is In Control Theword Modules

    ... Notes ...

    1 Timothy 2:4 & Titus 2:11, 'desires all people to be saved'
    Limited Atonement Timothy 2:4 Titus 2:11 Universalism Intercession The Cross ESV Study Bible MacArthur Study Bible Reformation Study Bible NLT Study Bible

    ... of God, obedience, and authentic worship.

    1 Timothy 2:5-6 Compact teachings, as in this passage, occur throughout the letters to Timothy and Titus (see also 3:16; 2 Tim 1:9-10; 2:8, 11-13; Titus 3:4-7). They might be adapted bits of creeds, hymns, or prayers that were known to the churches. The doctrines referenced probably relate to Paul’s trouble with the false teachers; it appears that their teaching undercut the universal appeal of the Good News and the effectiveness of the Gentile mission. The false teachers also had a deficient understanding of Jesus and his salvation.

    Will of Desire

    God’s will of desire: ESV MacArthur Study Bible:[6]

    2:4 desires all people to be saved. The Greek word for “desires” is not that which normally expresses God’s will of decree (his eternal purpose), but God’s will of desire. There is a distinction between God’s desire and his eternal saving purpose, which must transcend his desires. God does not want men to sin. He hates sin with all his being (Ps 5:4; 45:7); thus, he hates its consequences ­­– eternal wickedness in hell. God does not want people to remain wicked forever in eternal remorse and hatred of himself. Yet, God for his own glory, and to manifest that glory in wrath, chose to endure “vessels…prepared for destruction” for the supreme fulfillment of his will (Rom. 9:22). In his eternal purpose, he chose only the elect out of the world (John 17:6) and passed over the rest, leaving them to the consequences of their sin, unbelief, and rejection of Christ, (cf. Rom. 1:18-32). Ultimately, God’s choices are determined by his sovereign, eternal purpose, not his desires. See note on 2 Pet. 3:9 the knowledge of the truth. Meaning “to be saved.” See note on 2 Tim 3:7

    2:5 there is one God. There is no other way of salvation (Acts 4:12); hence there is the need to pray for the lost to come to know the one true God (cf. Deut. 4:35, 39; 6:4; Isa. 43:10; 44:6; 45:5-6, 21, 22; 46:9; 1 Cor. 8:4,6). Mediator. This refers to someone who intervenes between two parties to resolve a conflict or ratify a covenant. Jesus Christ is the only “mediator” who can restore peace between God and sinners (Heb. 8:6; 9:15; 12:24). The man Christ Jesus. The absence of the article before “man” in the Greek suggest the translation, “Christ Jesus, himself a man.” Only the perfect God-Man could bring God and man together. Cf. Job 9:32-33

    2:6 a ransom. This describes the result of Christ’s substitutionary death for believers, which he did voluntarily (John 10:17-18), and reminds one of Christ’s own statement in Matt. 20:28, “a ransom for many.” The “all” is qualified by the “many.” Not all will be ransomed (though his death would be sufficient), but only the many who believe by the work of the Holy Spirit and for whom the actual atonement was made. See note on 2:9. Christ did not pay a ransom only; he became the object of God’s just wrath in the believer’s place –he died his death and bore his sin (cf. 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet 2:24). For all. This should be taken in two senses; 1) there are temporal benefits of the atonement that accrue to all people universally (see note on 1 Tim. 4:10), and 2) Christ’s death was sufficient to cover the sins of all people. Yet the substitutionary aspect of his death is applied to the elect alone (see above and notes on 2 Cor. 5:14-21). Christ’s death is therefore unlimited in it’s sufficiency, but limited in its application. Because Christ’s expiation of sin is indivisible, inex...


    1 John 2:2, 'for the sins of the whole world'
    1 John 2:2 Propitiation For The Sins Of The Whole World Calvinism Election Predestination Limited Atonement Mercy Sovereignty

    ...o;a sacrifice that bears God’s wrath and turns it to favor,” and that is also the meaning of the English word “propitiation.” (See note on Rom. 3:25.) As the perfect sacrifice for sin, Jesus turns away God’s wrath (see also 1 John 4:10). For the sins of the whole world does not mean that every person will be saved, for John is clear that forgiveness of sins comes only to those who repent and believe the gospel (see 2:4, 23; 3:10; 5:12; cf.John 3:18; 5:24). But Jesus’ sacrifice is offered and made available to everyone in “the whole world,” not just to John and his current readers. 

    The ESV MacArthur Study Bible explains:  [2]

    Propitiation. C.f. 4:10. The word means “appeasement” or “satisfaction.” The sacrifice of Jesus on the cross satisfied the demands of God’s holiness for the punishment of sin (cf. Rom. 1:18; 2 Cor. 5:21; Eph 2:3). So Jesus propitiated or satisfied God. For the sins of the whole world. This is a generic term, referring not to every single individual, but to mankind in general. Christ actually paid the penalty only for those who would repent and believe. A number of Scripture indicates that Christ died for the world (John 1:29; 3:16; 6:51; 1 Tim. 2:6; Heb 2:9). Most of the world will be eternally condemned to hell to pay for their own sins, so they could not have been paid for by Christ. The passages that speak of Christ’s dying for the whole world must be understood to refer to mankind in general (as in Titus 2:3-4). “World” indicates the sphere, the beings toward whom God seeks reconciliation and has provided propitiation. God has mitigated his wrath on sinners temporarily, by letting them live and enjoy earthly life. In that sense, Christ has provided a brief, temporal propitiation for the whole world. But he actually satisfied fully the wrath of God eternally only for the elect who believe. Christ’s death in itself had unlimited and infinite value because he is Holy God. Thus his sacrifice was sufficient to pay the penalty for all the sins of all whom God brings to faith. But the actual satisfaction and atonement was made only for those who believe (cf. John 10:11, 15; 17:9, 20; Acts 20:28; Rom 8:32, 37; Eph 5:25). The pardon for sin is offered to the whole world, but received only by those who believe (cf. 1 John 4:9, 14; John 5:24). There is no other way to be reconciled to God.

    The HCSB Study Bible says:  [3]

    Jesus' perfect obedience and sacrificial death satisfied God's just demand for sin to be punished ( propitiation). But His punishment was for others, not for Himself. The phrase for those of the whole world does not mean the salvation of all people. It does mean that, in keeping with God's promise to bless all the nations through Abraham and his descendants (Gen 12:3), Jesus' saving death extends the offer of salvation to all nations.

    This is what John Gill said: [4]

    • And he is the propitiation for our sins,.... For the sins of us who now believe, and are Jews:
    • and not for ours only; but for the sins of Old Testament saints, and of those who shall hereafter believe in Christ, and of the Gentiles also, signified in the next clause:
    • but also for [the sins] of the whole world; the Syriac version renders it, "not for us only, but also for the whole world"; that is, not for the Jews only, for John was a Jew, and so were those he wrote unto, but for the Gentiles also. Nothing is more common in Jewish writings than to call the Gentiles עלמא, "the world"; and
    • כל העולם, ...