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1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 22: Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath Day - Commentary

...her.


§7 The Case For The Christian Sabbath

  1. As it is the law of nature, that in general a proportion of time, by God's appointment, be set apart for the worship of God, so by his Word, in a positive moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men, in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a sabbath to be kept holy unto him, which from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ was The Last Day of the week, and from the resurrection of Christ was changed into the first day of the week, which is called the Lord's day: and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath, the observation of The Last Day of the week being abolished. 2
    1. Gen. 2:3; Exod. 20:8-11; Mark 2:27-28; Rev. 1:10
    2. John 20:1; Acts 2:1; 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:1; Rev. 1:10; Col. 2:16-17

The law of nature reveals to us that in general a proportion of time, by God’s appointment, be set apart for the worship of God. This is also evidenced by the feasts and religious days that all religions have had. But this says nothing how long or when this proportion of time should be. That is revealed by His Word as, for example, is the acceptable way of worshiping Him revealed only by His Word (paragraph 1). The Confession then goes on to talk about the day of worship. The commandment is said to be a positive moral, and perpetual commandment. What do these words mean? Positive is something which is added to the law of nature or the moral law. It is not intuitive or part of that which is written in the hearts of men. That which is written in the hearts of men is that a proportion of time should be set apart for the worship of God. But as to when this time is, is revealed by His Word. It is also a moral commandment. It has its ground in God and its essence is written in the hearts of all men. Lastly, it is said to be a perpetual commandment, i.e., one which will not go away but remain with man forever. What does this commandment do? It is said to be binding on all men, in all ages that one day in seven is a sabbath to be kept holy unto Him (Ex. 20:8-11). This is the essence of the Sabbath commandment: one day in seven is a Sabbath unto the Lord. Finally, the Confession goes on to identify the specific day of the Sabbath under the Old Testament and the New Testament. Prior to the resurrection of Christ, it fell on The Last Day of the week. But from the resurrection of Christ, it was changed into the first day of the week (John 20:1, 19; Acts 20:7; 1Cor. 16:2; Rev. 1:10). The first day of the week is also called the Lord’s day in Scripture and history (see the sections below). The Lord’s day is to be continued as the Sabbath under the New Covenant, hence it is called the Christian Sabbath. The observation of The Last Day of the week has been abolished with the resurrection of Christ and the change of the specific day of the Sabbath from the seventh to the first (or eight).


Introduction

My Study

This is a topic that has fascinated me for some time. When I first read the Confession, I could remember that I had general agreement with what was said here, but I couldn’t have made a biblical case for it. At some times I thought that the Sabbath was abolished, other times I thought it was not. I was not sure. A desire came in me a while ago to study this subject and to understand why Reformed Christians observe the Christian Sabbath. By the grace of God, I was and am convinced that the Lord’s command...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 31: Of the State of Man after Death and Of the Resurrection of the Dead - Commentary

... cases it seems that Sheol simply means the grave. In fact, the righteous are said to be delivered from Sheol (Prov. 15:24; Ps. 49:14-15). The righteous are delivered from the punishments of Sheol and they are delivered from the power of death. Dr. Waldron writes:

Fifthly, the Old Testament teaches that the righteous are delivered from Sheol, in spite of the fact that in one sense the righteous die and go to Sheol, the grave (Prov. 15:24; Ps. 49:14-15). This requires us to distinguish between a place of punishment in the afterlife, from which the righteous are delivered, and the grave, which symbolizes it and from which the righteous in general are not delivered till The Last Day. Otherwise the teaching that the righteous are delivered from Sheol would have no meaning.[7]

It is important to note that when Sheol simply signifies the grave, only the body of man goes to the grave, the soul of man either enters into its Master's joy or into misery after death. The following passages, according to William G. T. Shedd, fit the meaning of Sheol as grave: 1 Samuel 2:6; Genesis 37:35; 44:31; Job 14:13; 17:13-14; Psalm 6:5; 88:3; 89:48; 141:7; Numbers 16:33; Ecclesiastes 9:10; Hosea 13:14. He says that "Sheol in the sense of the grave is invested with gloomy associations for the good, as well as the wicked...”.

There are places in the Old Testament where Sheol is described in a not so pleasant way and as a place of punishment. God's anger is said to burn in Sheol. Deuteronomy 32:22 says, “For a fire is kindled by my [God's] anger, and it burns to the depths of Sheol”. Sheol is denounced against the wicked. See Job 21:13; 24:19; 26:6; Psalm 9:17; 49:14; 55:15; Proverbs 5:5, 11; 7:27; 9:18; 15:24; 23:14. Notice also the following three passages which relate Sheol with Abaddon: Job 26:6; Proverbs 15:11; 27:20. Abaddon, which is translated with "destruction” sometimes, is the Hebrew name for Apollyon, who is said to be the angel of the bottomless pit (Rev. 9:11). William Shedd writes:

There can be no rational doubt that in this class of Old Testament texts the wicked and sensual are warned of a future evil and danger. The danger is that they shall be sent to Sheol. The connection of thought requires, therefore, that Sheol in such passages have the same meaning as the modern Hell, and like this have an exclusive reference to the wicked. Otherwise, it is not a warning. To give it a meaning that makes it the common residence of the good and evil is to destroy its force as a Divine menace. If Sheol be merely a promiscuous underworld for all souls, then to be “turned into sheol” is no more a menace for the sinner than for the saint and consequently a menace for neither. In order to be of the nature of an alarm for the wicked, Sheol must be something that pertains to them alone...The Biblical Sheol is always an evil and nothing but an evil. When the human body goes down to Sheol in the sense of the “grave,” this is an evil. And when the human soul goes down to Sheol in the sense of “hell and retribution,” this is an evil. Both are threatened as the penalty of sin to the wicked, but never to the righteous.[8]

In summary, the word Sheol denotes the grave or a place of punishment for the wicked.

Hades

In the New Testament, the word Hades is related to Sheol. In fact, Hades is the Greek word which translated Sheol in the LXX. But there are questions about how exact the concepts are. Anthony Hoekema wrote:

Hades is the us...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 32: Of the Last Judgment - Commentary

...

Chapter 32: Of the Last Judgment

Now we come to the last chapter of the Confession, which deals with The Last Day, particularly, the Last Judgment. Is there a Day of Judgment? How will we be judged? Will believers be judged? Will angels also be judged? What is the relation of works to the judgment? What is Hell? Is it never-ending torment or annihilation? Who is the one who torments? How is God's glory manifested in Heaven and Hell?


§1 All Persons That Have Lived Upon The Earth Shall Appear Before The Tribunal Of Christ

  1. God hath appointed a day wherein he will judge the world in righteousness, by Jesus Christ; to whom all power and judgment is given of the Father; in which day, not only the apostate angels shall be judged, but likewise all persons that have lived upon the earth shall appear before the tribunal of Christ, to give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds, and to receive according to what they have done in the body, whether good or evil. 4
    1. John 5:22, 27; Acts 17:31[1]
    2. 1 Cor. 6:3; Jude 6
    3. Matt. 16:27; 25:31-46; Acts 17:30-31; Rom. 2:6-16; 2 Thess. 1:5-10; 2 Peter 3:1-13; Rev. 20:11-15
    4. 2 Cor. 5:10, 1 Cor. 4:5, Matt. 12:36

God has determined and appointed a day wherein He will judge the world in righteousness, by Jesus Christ (Acts 17:30-31), Who has all power and judgment...given to Him by the Father (John 5:22). It is certain that this day will come because God has determined and appointed in it. On this day, not only the apostate angels (Jude 6; 1Cor. 6:3) but also all persons that have lived upon the earth shall appear before the tribunal of Christ (2Cor. 5:10). Even Christians will have to appear before the tribunal of Christ. What is the reason of their appearance? It is to give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds (Matt. 12:36) and to be rewarded according to what they have done...whether good or evil (e.g. Rev. 20:11-15). God will reward us to take rewards away according to the works which we have done in the body. All our good works have been washed away by the blood of Christ and rewarded by grace. But there will be some who will lose rewards because of their works. The wicked will be condemned by their works because they demonstrate their nature as fallen and wicked.


The Day of Judgment is not the day which will determine the destinies of men; their destinies were fixed at the time they died (Heb 9:27; see here). We deny the doctrine of soul-sleep, the righteous pass from this life into the Intermediate State in bliss, while the wicked go into misery upon their deaths. But what is then the difference between what the wicked and righteous experience now in the Intermediate State and what they will experience after the Day of Judgment? Well for one, they were already judged at death and their judgment was private (Heb 9:27), but the Day of Judgment is public in which the secrets of men will be disclosed. Second, the joy and also the misery of men in the Intermediate State is bodiless. Their bodies lie rotting in the grave, while their souls are in places of peace or anguish. At the Day of Judgment, all the dead will be resurrected, their souls uniting with their bodies, and then come to appear before the throne of God. The difference then is that their everlasting punishment or their everlasting bliss is in body and soul, while in the Intermediate State it is in the soul alone. Moreover, the wicked will then be publicly condemned before the wor...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 17: Of The Perseverance of the Saints - Commentary

...ints. Below are some passages from the Johannine writings (mainly the Gospel) in support of this doctrine.

John 6:37-40 – I should lose nothing

All that the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never cast out. 38 For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will but the will of him who sent me. 39 And this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up on The Last Day. 40 For this is the will of my Father, that everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him should have eternal life, and I will raise him up on The Last Day.”

John 6 is a great passages on the doctrine of sovereign unconditional election from the very lips of the Lord Jesus, I have gone through the passage in chapter 3 regarding the subject of Unconditional Election. But now we will focus more closely on the fact that the Son of God will lose none of the elect. The idea of the Father giving people to the Son comes frequently in the Gospel of John (John 6:37, 39, 65; 10:29; 17:2, 6, 9, 24). Those who are given are obviously the elect to whom the Son of God will give eternal life. This is also the case from John 6 wherein it is clear to see that those who are given are brought safely even to The Last Day.

1. First, we observe the fact that all whom the Father has given to the Son will come to the Son. There is nothing "iffy" in the passage. All who are given will definitely come. God does not fail to accomplish His purpose, for it is God actually who draws and grants people to come to the Son (John 6:44, 65). He grants the willingness and desire for a sinner to repent and put their faith in Christ, therefore He will not fail. There is a clear connection in verse 37 between those who are given by the Father to the Son and those who come. There is only one group, namely, the group that is given that will also come to the Son.

2. Those who are given by the Father to the Son, will not be rejected by the Son. Sometimes non-Calvinists make a terrible caricature of God's absolute sovereignty saying that some people want to be saved, but they are rejected by God. We as Calvinists abhor such an idea and protest that no one will come to the Son unless drawn by the Father (John 6:44). Therefore, anyone who comes to the Son, comes by the power and drawing of God and consequently will not be cast out. The Son will not reject those whom the Father has given Him and draws to Himself. They will find Him to be a perfect Savior who has atoned for their sins and provides them an unshakable salvation.

3. We see from verses 38-40 that there is a specific will of the Father concerning those whom He has given to the Son, namely, that they should not be lost. The Son has the duty to protect those whom the Father has given Him. The charge is that He " should lose nothing of all that he has given [Him], but raise it up on The Last Day." Here we have to ponder if it is possible for the Son to disobey the Father and therefore sin. Just thinking of such a thing is close to blasphemy. In John 8:29 the Lord Jesus Himself claims that "I always do the things that are pleasing to him [God the Father]." If the Son is always obedient to the Father, will He fail at this point? Is it possible for the Son to lose those who are entrusted into His care, disobey the Father and therefore sin? We are talking here of regenerate, justified and in-Christ believers. We are not talking about those who pr...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 8: Of Christ the Mediator - Commentary

... 24; John 20). It was amazing despite how many times the Lord predicted His death and resurrection (e.g. Mark 9:9, 31), they still did not expect Him to die and rise. It was against their expectations, which gives more credibility to the account of His death and resurrection. They did not expect the Messiah to be a Suffering Servant, but they expected someone that would throw down the Roman system and put Israel as the center of the world. The Jews were not expecting someone who would suffer and die. More than that, they were not expecting the resurrection other than at the end of the world. The disciples may have believed that Jesus would rise, but this resurrection would have been on The Last Day (John 11:24), not three days after His death. This was something that they certainly were not looking for. It was unacceptable to the Jews who were expecting the resurrection to be on The Last Day. It was not something that came into their minds. John speaks of this fact in chapter 20. The Lord is raised early Sunday morning, but the disciples did not understand or accept that. They do go to the tomb to check on Him when they did not see Him the first thought was not that He was raised from the dead, but that His body was stolen despite the many times that He told them that He would be raised.

John 20:6-9 Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying there, 7 and the face cloth, which had been on Jesus' head, not lying with the linen cloths but folded up in a place by itself. 8 Then the other disciple, who had reached the tomb first, also went in, and he saw and believed; 9 for as yet they did not understand the Scripture, that he must rise from the dead. 

The "other disciple", who was John, believed and remembered the Lord’s words and the Scriptures. But Peter and the other disciples did not believe or understand what was happening. They were so much focused on a conquering Messiah that neither His death nor resurrection ever entered their minds. What Scriptures spoke of Him being raised? References to Him being raised include: Psalm 16:10 (quoted in Acts 2:25-32; 13:32-39); Psalm 22:22-23; Isaiah 53:10-12; Hosea 6:2. Of these the most noteworthy is Acts 2:25-32. The case that Peter makes there is that it was Jesus ultimately of whom David spoke in Psalm 16:8-11. This is so because the patriarch David was not raised from the dead, in fact his body was still with them, rotting in the grave. But David, being a prophet and a recipient of God's covenant promises, knew that God would raise for him Someone who is from his descent who would forever sit on his throne. The Holy Spirit-inspired Peter says that with the fact that the Lord was always before Him, he foresaw the resurrection of Jesus. The Lord spoken of by David is the risen Lord Jesus, just like in Psalm 110. David knew that God would not abandon his descendent and his Lord to the grave. He would not remain in the state of the dead as the confession says, but will be raised. It was not possible for death to hold the Son of God down (Acts 2:24).

The Epistles

The epistles, especially Paul's are filled with references to the resurrection of Christ. Paul, in 1 Corinthians 15, makes a case from the resurrection of Christ to our own resurrection at the Parousia of Christ. He combats those who rejected the resurrection. Paul sees the resurrection of Christ as God's declaration of Christ as being the Son of God and the Lord (Rom. 1:4). ...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 3: Of God's Decree - Commentary

...ore, in v. 39, we have even a stronger statement than in the original passage. Here we are told that they “could not” believe. There is a huge difference between “could” and “would.” "Would" denotes a desire, while "could" denotes ability and power. Those people did not have the ability to believe. It’s not that they only did not desire and will Jesus and therefore did not believe, no, it’s also because they had no ability or power to believe. For indeed, our Lord says in John 6:44, “No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him. And I will raise him up on The Last Day.” They cannot because they desire not, and they desire not because they love not the Lord Jesus.

I have always been fascinated by this phrase in verse 40: lest they see. This denotes a strong purpose from the Lord. This is a strong determination from the Lord’s part for the destruction of these people. The purpose of giving these blind eyes to the people is that they may never come to faith and evermore wander in their sins as punishment for their already committed sins. This prophecy of Isaiah is used by Paul in Romans 11 again in regards to Israel's rejection of the Gospel.

Rom. 11:7-8 What then? Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking. The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened, 8 as it is written, “God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that would not see and ears that would not hear, down to this very day.”

In Israel’s rejection of the Messiah, they were carrying God’s eternal plan of election and reprobation. God didn’t lose control of the world but was carrying history to its appointed end. The fact that Israelites indeed did receive the Gospel and believe, Paul, being an example (Rom. 11:1), along with the Apostles and those in the early chapters of Acts, is confirmation of God’s eternal election. Also, the fact that some did disbelieve happened “as it is written”, i.e., it accords with God’s eternal decree of reprobation. Notice also the force of the verse in the way that Paul quotes it: God gave them a spirit of stupor. Paul stresses the activity of God in their hardening and reprobation, which is not the same thing as Equal Ultimacy, which is the creation of evil and sin in the hearts of the reprobate. Rather, the hearts of Christ-rejecters are already filled with evil and sin.

God Sends Them Strong Delusions

One of the strongest statements about Reprobation comes from Paul’s second epistle to the Thessalonians. He writes:

2Thess. 2:9-12 The coming of the lawless one is by the activity of Satan with all power and false signs and wonders, 10 and with all wicked deception for those who are perishing, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11 Therefore God sends them a strong delusion, so that they may believe what is false, 12 in order that all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

First, this is not to be escaped by simply saying that this is still future, it is not. This is the same truth of Isaiah 6:9-10, but given in different words. Even if our opponents would object by saying that this refers to the future (as some wild ones have), the fact remains that God sends strong delusions and this passage must be dealt with. Why are these delusions sent? So that good people would become bad? No, of course not. Over and over again we have seen that reprobation and hardening are passive works of God where He gives more freedom to a wicked heart in their sin. ...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 26: Of the Church - Commentary

...rm. It was not a formal covenant as the others were. The fact that all the saints, both prior to the physical coming of Christ and after the coming, are included in the Universal Church is seen in Hebrews 12:22-24. Here, the church on earth joins with the church in heaven. In worship, we come to the assembly or the Church “of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven”. John Gill commented on this passage:

the church of God, consisting of all his elect, both Jews and Gentiles, and the meeting of them together: they met together, in the infinite mind of God, from all eternity; and in Christ, their head and representative, both then and in time; and at The Last Day, when they are all gathered in, they will meet together personally; and a joyful meeting it will be; and a very general one, more so than the assembly of the Jews, at any of their solemn feasts, to which the apostle may have some respect; since this will consist of some of all nations, that have lived in all places, and in all ages of time[4]

If it was the blood of Christ which saved all saints in all ages and under all the covenants and thereby they belong to Christ and His assembly. He is their Mediator and He is the Mediator of only one covenant, the New Covenant in His blood. If He stood for them before God, He stood as the Mediator of the New Covenant or the Covenant of Grace on their behalf. Therefore, they had to be members of the New Covenant or people chosen to be in the New Covenant for Christ to able to represent them. This was, in fact, the covenant which the believers under the Old Testament were called into (Heb. 9:15-17). Dr. Sam Waldron writes:

the church is the climactic earthly expression of the people of God. Thus language is frequently used which equates the church with all those in union with Christ. The church is the body and bride of Christ (Eph. 1:22; 4:11-16; 5:23-27, 29, 32; Col. 1:18, 24). Furthermore, the bride of Christ is composed in The Last Day of the saved from every age (Eph. 5:27; Rev. 21:9-14; note also Matt. 8:11-12; John 10:14-17; Heb. 11:39-40). Thus the church will one day be composed of all the redeemed. As the people of God, the church does consist ‘of the whole number of the elect’.[5]

A. H. Strong defines the church as:

The church of Christ, in its largest signification, is the whole company of regenerate persons in all times and ages, in heaven and on earth (Mat. 16:18; Eph. 1:22, 23; 3:10; 5:24, 25; Col. 1:18; Heb. 12:23). In this sense, the church is identical with the spiritual kingdom of God; both signify that redeemed humanity in which God in Christ exercises actual spiritual dominion (John 3:3, 5).[6]

Later he adds, “Union with Christ is the presupposition of the church.”[7]


§2 Visible Saints

  1. All persons throughout the world, professing the faith of the gospel, and obedience unto God by Christ according unto it, not destroying their own profession by any errors everting the foundation, or unholiness of conversation, are and may be called visible saints; and of such ought all particular congregations to be constituted. 2
    1. 1 Cor. 1:2; Rom. 1:7-8; Acts 11:26; Matt. 16:18; 28:15-20; 1 Cor. 5:1-9
    2. Matt. 18:15-20; Acts 2:37-42; 4:4; Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 5:1-9

All people...professing the faith of the gospel, and obedience unto God by Christ (Rom. 1:5-8; 1Cor. 1:2), who are not destroying their profession are to be called visible saints. Notice the careful wording of the Confession. While paragraph 1 ...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 7: Of God's Covenant - Commentary

...tiles, but more ultimately, the Word of God is in agreement with his testimony. What we should notice is the fact with what “the words of the prophets agree”. James specifically says that the words of the prophets agree with the fact that God would visit the Gentiles and take from them a people for the glory of His name. It is with this fact, the coming of the Gentiles in the Church of God, that the words of the prophets agree. James only provides a passage from Amos, but he says the words of the prophets meaning that if he was pressed, he could have provided more proof from the Old Testament and that the other prophets do not contradict this simple message of The Last Days as preached by the Apostles. The Lord has rebuilt the tent of David by seating the Lord Jesus, Who is the true heir of the promises made to David (Luke 1:32-33), upon the throne of God's Kingdom and by bringing the Gentiles to His fold. Oh, the magnificent grace and wisdom of God. Praise Him, all ye His saints!

If the Lord Jesus was not seated on the throne of David and the tent of David was not rebuilt, then the Gentiles and all people including Jews, would not have sought the Lord. But since they, in fact, do and have done so, it means that the King is seated on His throne and the Kingdom of David, which is the Kingdom of God, is here. I could go on describing the way that Amos 9:11-12 is cited in Acts 15:16-17, but I'll leave that to the interested student to study. Though I will say: notice the differences in Acts, “after this” instead of “in that day”; “the tent of David” instead of “the booth of David”; “I will restore it” instead of “rebuild it as in the days of old”, no mention of Edom in Acts, but instead the call to all mankind and the Gentiles. Therefore, I conclude that the Kingdom of the Son is here in the present time and does not await some future Millennium as Premillennialists await and the kingdom people are the Israel of God and not fleshly Jews. Those are they who are saved by the grace of the Lord Jesus just as the Christian Jews are. 

An interesting connection between the kingdom people and the house of God is pointed out to us by A. W. Pink in the following words:

The kingdom of Christ and the house of God are one and the same, viewed from different angles. It is the redeemed who constitute the true subjects of Christ’s kingdom, for they alone own His scepter: where there are no subjects, there can be no kingdom. And it is the redeemed who provide God with a satisfying resting place. In the later prophets it was expressly foretold, "Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name is The Branch: and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the Lord: even he shall build the temple of the Lord, and he shall bear the glory" (Zech. 6:12, 13). Now the true house in which God dwells is a spiritual one, composed of living stones, converted souls, which is "built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone; in whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto a holy temple in the Lord" (Eph. 1:20, 21).[56]

The New Covenant

Now we come to the central and the last covenant of the whole Bible. From Genesis 3:15 and until Malachi we are promised the coming of Savior and the Messianic Covenant. It is the central covenant of all Scriptures. All God's promises find their fulfillment in this covenant. All the shadows and types from the Ol...


1689 Second Baptist Confession of Faith Highlighted

...
  • Ps. 84:1-2, 10; Matt. 18:20; 1 Cor. 3:16; 14:25; Eph. 2:21-22
  • Acts 2:42; Heb. 10:25
    1. As it is the law of nature, that in general a proportion of time, by God's appointment, be set apart for the worship of God, so by his Word, in a positive moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men, in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a sabbath to be kept holy unto him, which from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ was The Last Day of the week, and from the resurrection of Christ was changed into the first day of the week, which is called the Lord's day: and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath, the observation of The Last Day of the week being abolished.
      1. Gen. 2:3; Exod. 20:8-11; Mark 2:27-28; Rev. 1:10
      2. John 20:1; Acts 2:1; 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:1; Rev. 1:10; Col. 2:16-17
    1. The sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering their common affairs aforehand, do not only observe an holy rest all day, from their own works, words and thoughts, about their worldly employment and recreations, but are also taken up the whole time in the public and private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy.
      1. Exod. 20:8-11; Neh. 13:15-22; Isa. 58:13-14; Rev. 1:10
      2. Matt. 12:1-13; Mark 2:27-28

    Chapter 23: Of Lawful Oaths and Vows [Return] [Commentary]

    1. A lawful oath is a part of religious worship, wherein the person swearing in truth, righteousness, and judgement, solemnly calleth God to witness what he sweareth, and to judge him according to the truth or falseness thereof.
      1. Deut. 10:20; Exod. 20:7; Lev. 19:12; 2 Chron. 6:22-23; 2 Cor. 1:23
    1. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear; and therein it is to be used, with all holy fear and reverence; therefore to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred; yet as in matter of weight and moment, for confirmation of truth, and ending all strife, an oath is warranted by the word of God; so a lawful oath being imposed by lawful authority in such matters, ought to be taken.
      1. Deut. 6:13; Exod. 20:7; Jer. 5:7
      2. Heb. 6:13-16; Gen. 24:3; 47:30-31; 50:25; 1 Kings 17:1; Neh. 13:25; 5:12; Ezra 10:5; Num. 5:19.21; 1 Kings 8:31; Exod. 22:11; Isa. 45:23; 65:16; Matt. 26:62-64; Rom. 1:9; 2 Cor. 1:23; Acts 18:18
    1. Whosoever taketh an oath warranted by the Word of God, ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he knoweth to be truth; for that by rash, false, and vain oaths, the Lord is provoked, and for them this land mourns.
      1. Exod. 20:7; Lev. 19:12; Num. 30:2; Jer 4:2; 23:10
    1. An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words, without equivocation or mental reservation.
      1. Ps. 24:4; Jer. 4:2
    1. A vow, which is not to be made to any creature, but to God alone, is to be made and performed with all religious care and faithfulness; but popish monastical vows of perpetual single life, professed poverty, and regular obedience, are so far from being degrees of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself.
      1. Num. 30:2-3; Ps. 76:11; Jer. 44:25-26
      2. Num. 30:2; Ps. 61:8; 66:13-14; Eccles 5:4-6; Isa. 19:21
      3. ...

    Review of Dean Davis' The High King of Heaven on Amillennialism

    ...e-bordered table-condensed" style="width: auto;" Verse Scripture

    Judgment of the wicked

    Mt 7:22-23 On that day many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord…I never knew you; depart from me… Jn 12:48 …the word that I have spoken will judge him on The Last Day. 2Pet 3:10 heavens will pass away…and the earth and the works that are done on it will be exposed. Mk 8:38 …ashamed of me…the Son of Man also be ashamed when he comes…

    General Judgment and Reward

    Rom 2:5-6, 16 …day of wrath when God's righteous judgment will be revealed…He will render to each one according to his works:…on that day when, according to my gospel, God judges the secrets of men by Christ Jesus. 1Cor 3:13 each one's work will become manifest, for the Day will disclose it, because it will be revealed by fire, and the fire will test what sort of work each one has done. Mt 13:30 Let both grow together until the harvest, and at harvest time I will tell the reapers, Gather the weeds first and bind them in bundles to be burned, but gather the wheat into my barn.’” Mt 13:49 …at the end of the age…separate the evil from the righteous Mt 25:32, 46 Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate people one from another…And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” Mt 13:47-50 …sorted the good into containers but threw away the bad. So it will be at the end of the age… angels will come out and separate the evil from the righteous… 2Cor 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may receive what is due for what he has done in the body, whether good or evil. 1Cor 4:5 …do not pronounce judgment before the time, before the Lord comes, who will bring to light the things now hidden in darkness and will disclose the purposes of the heart. Then each one will receive his commendation from God.

    Rapture, Resurrection, Judgment, Restoration

    1Cor 15:23-28 …at his coming those who belong to Christ…Then comes the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every authority and power…death… 1Cor 15:50-58 …flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God…a mystery. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet…dead will be raised imperishable, and we shall be changed…this mortal body must put on immortality…“Death is swallowed up in victory.”… Mt 13:37-43 …The harvest is the end of the age…weeds are gathered and burned with fire, so will it be at the end of the age…Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father…

    General Resurrection

    Jn 5:28-29 …an hour is coming…resurrection of life…resurrection of judgment. Acts 24:15 …there will be a resurrection of both the just and the unjust. Dan 12:2 ….sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. Jn 11:24 …“I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on The Last Day.”

    Day of Salvation for the Elect

    Jn 6:39 …raise it up on the l...