The Staunch Calvinist

"Absolute sovereignty is what I love to ascribe to God." - Jonathan Edwards

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1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 1: Of the Holy Scriptures - Commentary

...ewish way of speaking, much used in the Talmud {y}; when one doctor has produced an argument, or instance, in any point of debate, another says, איכא למיפרך, "it may be broken"; or objected to, in such and such a manner, and be refuted: but the Scripture cannot be broken, that is not to be objected to, there can be no confutation of that.[8]

In Matthew 5:17-18, the Lord said:

Matt. 5:17-18 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. 18 For truly, I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the Law until all is accomplished.

Here the Lord Jesus demonstrates His commitment to the full authority and infallibility of the Old Testament. The Lord Jesus goes to the most insignificant detail of the Scriptures and affirms that they will not by any means pass away. This demonstrates that He believed in the inspiration, inerrancy as well as the preservation of Scripture. John MacArthur notes, “Here Christ was affirming the utter inerrancy and absolute authority of the OT as the word of God—down to the smallest stroke or letter.”[9] Matthew Henry comments on this place:

Heaven and earth shall come together, and all the fulness thereof be wrapped up in ruin and confusion, rather than any word of God shall fall to the ground, or be in vain. The word of the Lord endures for ever, both that of the law, and that of the gospel. Observe, The care of God concerning his law extends itself even to those things that seem to be of least account in it, the iotas and the tittles; for whatever belongs to God, and bears his stamp, be it ever so little, shall be preserved.[10]

The same is asserted for the Lord Jesus’ teaching, and by extension to His teaching through the Apostles, in Matthew 24:35. His words will not fail to accomplish that which He intends. They are the words of God and are more powerful than the cosmos itself. It would be easier for the whole cosmos to vanish away than the Words of our God to pass away.

Words of men are known to contain lies, but the words of God have no lies whatsoever in them (Titus 1:2) because this God is a God of truth (Isa. 65:16; John 14:6; 17:17). Paul says in Romans 3:4:

By no means! Let God be true though every one were a liar, as it is written, “That you may be justified in your words, and prevail when you are judged.”

God is always true and every time when He opens His holy mouth and when He speaks to His people through His God-breathed Word. Words of men may contain errors, but the God of the Word cannot lie and His words are always true.

Believing the doctrine of inerrancy is the natural implication if we affirm that the Bible is the Word of God. Affirming the doctrine of inerrancy is simply submitting to the absolute Lordship of God, even in thinking about His Word and following the Messiah’s view of Scripture. Since we are Christians, we, therefore, should share the same view of Jesus on Scripture, which was clearly that they were inerrant and infallible, and fully trustworthy.

Sola Scriptura

The Scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith for the Church. Since they are Theopneustos, God-speaking (Matt 22:31; 2Tim 3:16-17; 2Pet 1:20-21), they are, by definition, ultimate in authority, for there can be no higher authority than God Himself. All other rules of faith, creeds, councils, or anything else produced by the Church herself, is subje...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 8: Of Christ the Mediator - Commentary

...tonement'? What about passages used against Limited Atonement?


§1 It pleased God, in His eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus

  1. It pleased God, 1 in His eternal purpose, 2 to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, his only begotten Son, according to the covenant made between them both, 3 to be the mediator between God and man; the Prophetpriest, and king; head and saviour of the church, the heir of all things, and judge of the world; unto whom he did from all eternity give a people to be his seed and to be by him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified. 5
    1. Isa. 42:1; John 3:16[1]
    2. 1Pet. 1:19-20
    3. Ps. 110:4; Heb. 7:21-22; Isa. 42:1; 1Pet. 2:4-6
    4. 1 Tim. 2:5; Acts 3:22; Heb. 5:5-6; Ps. 2:6; Luke 1:33; Eph. 1:22-23; 5:23; Heb. 1:2; Acts 17:31
    5. Rom. 8:30; John 17:6; Isa. 53:10; Ps. 22:30; 1 Tim. 2:6; Isa. 55:4-5; 1 Cor. 1:30

The only begotten Son was from all eternity chosen and ordained (Isa. 42:1; 1Pet. 1:19-20) to be the mediator between God and man (1Tim. 2:5). This means that having Christ to be the Savior of sinners and the Incarnation were not afterthoughts in God. God did not plan them after the Fall of man, but set them in motion after the Fall. This choosing and ordaining of Christ as mediator was according to the covenant made between them both, i.e., the Covenant of Redemption (see chapter 7:2). Even before sin and before the world was, the Lord Jesus was to be the Savior of His people. The Confession goes on to name the threefold offices of Christ as Prophet, priest, and king. He is also the head and savior of the church (Col. 1:18; Acts 5:31). The heir of all things (Heb. 1:2), Who will inherit everything and believers are co-heirs with Him (Rom. 8:16-17). He is also the One Who will judge the living and the dead (Acts 10:42; 17:31; 2Tim. 4:1). All these offices and functions were agreed upon by the Persons of the Trinity even before the foundation of the world. God from all eternity gave a people to be His seed and to be by Him in time redeemed (John 17:2, 6; Isa. 53:10) and given all the blessings of redemption. All these considerations make the Fall a necessity within God's decree. For if there is no Fall, then it means that there is no sin and therefore, no need of a savior. But if Christ is said to be ordained as Savior even before the creation of the world, then this means that there will be sinners who will be saved by Him, which makes the Fall an important part of God's plan.


Christ the Elect

Our Confession states that the Lord Jesus was chosen, called and ordained by God to the office of the mediator. He was chosen by God for this office according to the Covenant of Redemption between them (see chapter 7 on the Covenant of Redemption). We said in chapter 7 that the Covenant of Redemption was the eternal covenant between the Persons of the Trinity, which laid out their roles in the self-glorification of God and the redemption of God’s elect. The Father was to elect a people and give them to the Son. The Son was to redeem the people whom the Father gave to Him. The Spirit was to apply the benefits of Son on their behalf to them and indwell them.

Christ was chosen by the Father from before the foundation of the earth to be the Savior of God’s people. God’s plans had Him as the center. In Ephesians 1:3-6, we read that before the foundation of the world we were chosen and predestined in Christ for salvation, meaning that Christ was alre...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 31: Of the State of Man after Death and Of the Resurrection of the Dead - Commentary

...means the grave or the place of punishment for the wicked, the righteous go to Heaven)

Dr. Shedd, concluding his study on Hades and Sheol, writes:

From this examination of texts, it appears that Sheol in the Old Testament has the same two significations that Hades has in the New. The only difference is that in the Old Testament, Sheol less often in proportion to the whole number of instances denotes “hell” and more often the “grave” than Hades does in the New Testament. And this, for the reason that the doctrine of future retribution was more fully revealed and developed by Christ and his apostles than it was by Moses and the Prophets.
If after this study of the biblical data, there still be doubt whether Sheol and Hades.[10]

Another passage which speaks about the torments of the wicked in the Intermediate State is 2 Peter 2:9. There we read that the unrighteous are kept under punishment until the day of judgment. They are said to be kept under punishment until the solemn day of judgment, as the angels and the present world are (2Pet. 2:4; 3:7). They are under punishment now, but a greater punishment will they receive on the day of judgment when they will have to answer for every thought, word, and deed. There is no second chance after death (Heb. 9:27; the rich man and Lazarus) and that's why it is important to heed the call of the Gospel. We cannot escape God's just punishment if we do not heed the Gospel. The Gospel is the way to escape from God's wrath, otherwise we stand naked before His holy wrath.

“There is no peace,” says the LORD, “for the wicked.” 

(Isaiah 48:22)


§2 The Parousia

  1. At the last day, such of the saints as are found alive, shall not sleep, but be changed; and all the dead shall be raised up 2 with the selfsame bodies, and none other; although with different qualities, which shall be united again to their souls forever. 5
    1. 1 Cor. 15:50-53; 2 Cor. 5:1-4; 1 Thess. 4:17
    2. Dan. 12:2; John 5:28-29; Acts 24:15
    3. Job 19:26-27; John 5:28-29; 1 Cor 15:35-38, 42-44
    4. 1 Cor. 15:42-44, 52-54
    5. Dan. 12:2; Matt. 25:46

At the last day...saints that are found alive will be changed and not sleep, i.e., not die first (1Thess. 4:15-17; 1Cor. 15:50-53). They basically receive the resurrection body without first dying, but by being changed and transformed. As for those who are dead, they will all be raised up with the selfsame bodies which they had (Dan. 12:2; John 5:28-29; Acts 24:15), although their bodies have now different qualities (1 Cor. 15:42-44) which enables them to exist forever and their bodies shall be united again to their souls forever. The  saints  will receive a glorified body, while the wicked will receive a body in which they could be tormented forever. 


In this and the following paragraph, I want to discuss the events which will happen at the Second Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ from an Amillennial perspective. But first let us get to know the various millennial views.

The Millennial Views

I admit that I consider myself in no way an eschatology expert, nor have I read various books from various views. I became a convinced Amillennial when I read Sam Storm’s Kingdom Come, up to that point I was unconsciously a Dispensationalist. That which follows I believe to be an accurate and a general description of the various millennial positions to the best of my knowledge. There will obviously be some nuances with certain people, obviously. My purpo...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 7: Of God's Covenant - Commentary

...7). The phrase "everlasting covenant" probably denotes the everlasting effects of the curses of the covenant. Alternatively, this could refer to the Noahic Covenant, which is called "everlasting covenant" in Genesis 9:16.

If some are having difficulty with this concept that a word may be missing from the text while the concept is there, observe the interpretation of Psalm 16:10-11 in Acts 2:30-31:

Ps. 16:10-11 For you will not abandon my soul to Sheol, or let your holy one see corruption. 11 You make known to me the path of life; in your presence there is fullness of joy; at your right hand are pleasures forevermore. 

Acts 2:30-31 Being therefore a Prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants on his throne, 31 he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption

You will search in vain for the word "resurrection" or its synonyms in Psalm 16. But the fact remains, Peter looks back to Psalm 16 in light of Christ and says that David both foresaw and spoke of Christ's resurrection in Psalm 16. While the word is absent, the concept of Christ's resurrection was not absent from Psalm 16. Examples could be multiplied of this. In Romans 5:14, Adam is said to be a type of Christ. But you will search in vain for the word or concept of type in Genesis 1-3. Yet, the same Holy Spirit Who inspired the words in Genesis inspired Romans 5:14. Luke 3:38 calls Adam "the son of God", but you will search in vain for that phrase in connection with Adam in the Old Testament. The point is, it doesn't matter if the word is absent. What matters is if the concept is present and the way that subsequent revelation speaks of this account, which it calls a covenant as we have seen from Hosea 6:7 and perhaps Isaiah 24:5.

But why go to these instances when we could refer the reader to the promulgation of the Davidic Covenant? The revelation of the Davidic Covenant is in 2 Samuel 7. You will search in vain for the word "covenant" there. But all elements of a covenant are present. Furthermore, subsequent revelation sees this arrangement as a covenant. Psalm 89:3, e.g., says:

Ps 89:3-4 You have said, “I have made a covenant with my chosen one; I have sworn to David my servant: 4 ‘I will establish your offspring forever, and build your throne for all generations.’” — Selah

While the word covenant was absent from 2 Samuel 7 (and also the parallel account in 1 Chronicles 17). But it was nonetheless a covenant because it contained all the elements of a covenant and furthermore, it was referred to as a covenant by subsequent revelation.

A. W. Pink calls our attention to Genesis 2:16-17 and how it contains all the necessary elements of a covenant, writing:

“But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die” (Gen. 2:17). Here are all the constituent elements of a covenant: (1) there are the contracting parties, the Lord God and man; (2) there is a stipulation enjoined, which man (as he was duty bound) engaged to perform; (3) there was a penalty prescribed, which would be incurred in case of failure; (4) there was by clear and necessary implication a reward promised, to which Adam would be entitled by his fulfillment of the condition; (5) the “tree of life” was the divine seal or ratifica­tion of the covenant, as the rainbow was the seal of...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 3: Of God's Decree - Commentary

...sp;Let’s take a look at what commentators say about this verse. Calvin says:

Making peace, and creating evil. By the words “light” and “darkness” he describes metaphorically not only peace and war; but adverse and prosperous events of any kind; and he extends the word peace, according to the custom of Hebrew writers, to all success and prosperity. This is made abundantly clear by the contrast; for he contrasts “peace” not only with war, but with adverse events of every sort. Fanatics torture this word evil, as if God were the author of evil, that is, of sin; but it is very obvious how ridiculously they abuse this passage of the Prophet. This is sufficiently explained by the contrast, the parts of which must agree with each other; for he contrasts “peace” with “evil,” that is, with afflictions, wars, and other adverse occurrences. If he contrasted “righteousness” with “evil,” there would be some plausibility in their reasonings, but this is a manifest contrast of things that are opposite to each other. Consequently, we ought not to reject the ordinary distinction, that God is the author of the “evil” of punishment, but not of the “evil” of guilt.

But the Sophists are wrong in their exposition; for, while they acknowledge that famine, barrenness, war, pestilence, and other scourges, come from God, they deny that God is the author of calamities, when they befall us through the agency of men. This is false and altogether contrary to the present doctrine; for the Lord raises up wicked men to chastise us by their hand, as is evident from various passages of Scripture. (1Kg 11:14.) The Lord does not indeed inspire them with malice, but he uses it for the purpose of chastising us, and exercises the office of a judge, in the same manner as he made use of the malice of Pharaoh and others, in order to punish his people. (Exo 1:11 and Exo 2:23.) We ought therefore to hold this doctrine, that God alone is the author of all events; that is, that adverse and prosperous events are sent by him, even though he makes use of the agency of men, that none may attribute it to fortune, or to any other cause.[7]

John Gill observes the following:

I make peace, and create evil; peace between God and men is made by Christ, who is God over all; spiritual peace of conscience comes from God, through Christ, by the Spirit; eternal glory and happiness is of God, which saints enter into at death; peace among the saints themselves here, and with the men of the world; peace in churches, and in the world, God is the author of, even of all prosperity of every kind, which this word includes: "evil" is also from him; not the evil of sin; this is not to be found among the creatures God made; this is of men, though suffered by the Lord, and overruled by him for good: but the evil of punishment for sin, God's sore judgments, famine, pestilence, evil beasts, and the sword, or war, which latter may more especially be intended, as it is opposed to peace; this usually is the effect of sin; may be sometimes lawfully engaged in; whether on a good or bad foundation is permitted by God; moreover, all afflictions, adversities, and calamities, come under this name, and are of God; see Job 2:10:[2]

Thus He is sovereign over good as He is sovereign over evil, though not in a directly symmetrical way. He does not create evil or sin in the hearts of men but brings upon them calamity and all that is the antithesis of "peace" as chastisement and punishment. What this passage ...


Review of Sam Waldron's To Be Continued?

... 36px; line-height: 57.6px; text-align: -webkit-center;" Gifts For Today?

Dr. Waldron is a respectful and good Christian scholar, but this work was not written for the big scholars, but was written for the lay Christian who is interested in topic of the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

I liked the book and I thought that it was a pretty good case for cessationism. He tried to interact for example with Grudem on some points.

The Argument

The argument is basically:

1. There are no apostles
2. Therefore there are no Prophets
3. Therefore there are no tongue-speaks
4. Therefore there are no miracle-workers

1. Apostles

First of all, by the use of Ephesians 4:9-11 he spends a paragraph or two to say that the apostolate was a gift. The word for gift in verse 9 is not the usual χάρισμα (charisma). He does not interact with those who do not accept that the apostolate was a (spiritual) gift, but rather a ministry or an office. This in my opinion is the biggest flaw in his argument. 

The Cascade Argument is built around and based upon the point that the greatest "gift" – the apostolate has ceased in the first century. He in fact makes a good case on the cessation of the apostolate, but does not make a convincing case that it was a spiritual gift like those mentioned in 1Cor 12:7-10 for example. Therefore, his Cascading Argument becomes weak. This is a point that Matt Slick also brought in the back-and-forth in their debate.

The argument basically starts with, if the greatest gift has ceased, it is therefore possible that the other "miraculous" gifts have also ceased. I don't believe that the NT makes such a distinction between the gifts as the “ordinary” and “extraordinary”, or “non-miraculous” and “miraculous.” I have not been able to find this distinction yet in the text of Scripture. 

2. Prophets

He demonstrates from the OT that a Prophet was simply the mouth of God to the people (Ex 4:10-17; 7:1-2).  Also, what the Prophets said had to be 100% accurate according to the regulations of Deuteronomy 13:1-5 and 18:15-22. Therefore he proceeds to the New Testament with the same definition of prophecy and this is understandable.

He first considers few passages used in support of continuationism including Ephesians 4:11-13; 1 Cor 13:8-13 and the case of Agabus (Acts 21:10-11).

On Ephesians 4 he says that if we maintain that everything in verse 11 is needed for our maturity and unity in the faith then we are proving too much. If we follow that, then we must also say that the apostolate must continue, but we have proven that it in fact did not continue. Therefore, he says that the apostles must refer to the writings and teaching of the apostles that we have in the New Testament and Prophets or prophecy refers to the book of Revelation. He does not dispute if we have prophecy (i.e. the book of Revelation), rather if we have ongoing or new prophecy.

I don't think that the putting of Revelation under the category of "Prophets" is right. John was not writing as a Prophet, but was writing with the authority of an Apostle, that is the case for every NT book. It was either written by an apostle or an associate. I know of no NT book whose author was an Prophet

Therefore, I do indeed agree that we have the Apostles in their writings, but I know of nothing that we have from Prophets, therefore, it would seem that they would be necessary for the building up and achieving the unity of faith. (I don't know how this pr...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 32: Of the Last Judgment - Commentary

... NASB]; Luke 8:28; 16:23, 28; 2 Pet. 2:8). The word group occurs approximately one hundred times in the LXX, always referring to conscious suffering. Therefore, the genitive phrase the smoke of their torment is a mixed metaphor, where smoke is figurative of an enduring memorial of God’s punishment involving a real, ongoing, eternal, conscious torment.[10] [emphasis original]

Revelation 20:10

and the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false Prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.

We noted above on Matthew 25:41 that both the wicked and their master, the devil, share the same fate. This is relevant when we come to Revelation 20:10, which describes the torment of the devil, beast and false Prophet. The passage teaches that “the devil…was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false Prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.” Since the wicked share the same fate of their father the devil, their torment has likewise the same duration and is in the same place (Rev 20:15). The Greek expression for “forever and ever” is very interesting, R. C. H. Lenski observes:

The strongest expression for our 'forever' is eis tous aionan ton aionon, 'for the eons of eons'; many aeons, each of vast duration, are multiplied by many more, which we imitate by 'forever and ever.' Human language is able to use only temporal terms to express what is altogether beyond time and timeless. The Greek takes its greatest term for time, the eon, pluralizes this, and then multiplies it by its own plural, even using articles which make these eons the definite ones.[11]

The expression is in reference to God to Whom be glory (Gal. 1:5; Phil. 4:20; 1Tim. 1:17; 2Tim. 4:18; 1Pet. 4:11). In the Apocalypse it is used of

  • Christ’s never-ending life (Rev. 1:18);
  • God’s praise (Rev. 4:9-10; 5:13; 7:12; 11:15; );
  • of God’s life (Rev 10:6; 15:7);
  • the smoke of Babylon (Rev 19:3);
  • the torment of the lake of fire (Rev 20:10); and finally,
  • about the reign of the righteous on the New Earth (Rev 22:5).

A similar expression (εἰς αἰῶνας αἰώνων, eis aionas aionon) is used concerning the torment of the wicked (Rev. 14:11). In none of these passages do we get any slight idea that this expression means anything less than endless things. Either the endless praise of God, or the endless glory which belongs to God, or the endless reign of the saints on the New Earth through all eternity. On what ground can we cast any doubts upon the torments of the ungodly, then? The torment of those in the lake of fire is said to be “day and night forever and ever”, this calls to mind Revelation 14:11 which contains “forever and ever” (the only difference is that the expression does not contain the definite articles) and “no rest day and night” concerning the condition of the Devil’s followers. Both the Devil and his followers will receive the same fate in the same place of torment. Satan is not the ruler of Hell, neither will the demons torment people as is commonly thought. But all who are in Hell will be tormented, both men and demons. In summary, we see in these passages (Rev. 14:9-11; 20:10 in connection with Matt. 25:41) the teaching of unceasing and unending punishment for all the wicked, men and angels.

2 Thessalonians 1:9

They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of th...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 22: Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath Day - Commentary

...s own heart. And he instituted a feast for the people of Israel and went up to the altar to make offerings.

He had no divine warrant for such idolatrous and blasphemous ways of worshiping God. He had to follow God’s Law and what it said concerning how He is to be worship and not to devise “from his own heart” how God should be worshiped. After this incident and in subsequent history, Jeroboam becomes an example of a sinful and evil king (e.g. 1Kgs. 10:29, 31; 13:2, 6, 11; 16:2, 19-20, 26; 21:22; 22:52; 2Kgs. 3:3; 14:24; 15:9, 18, 24, 28; 17:21-22; 23:15). Notice especially 2 Kings 10:29. In the next chapter (1 Kings 13), God sends a Prophet to prophesy about the abolishment of this false worship. It is obvious that God was not pleased with this innovation of worship which had no basis in His Word. Jeroboam, as the text says, “devised” these things “from his own heart” (1Kgs. 12:33), which was wicked and deceitful (Jer. 17:9). Williamson notes:

Jeroboam was always spoken of, after that time, as the one who "caused Israel to sin" (as a corporate body) (I Kings 15:30). We hardly exaggerate, then, when we say that this was a major source of Israel's ultimate downfall. Worship which had been appointed by God was replaced by a new form of worship. But because this worship was not commanded by God it was therefore rejected.[7]

What God has not commanded, is forbidden. What God has commanded is to be done and that alone is to be done.

In Vain Do They Worship Me

Mark 7:6-8 And he said to them, “Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, “‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me; 7 in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’ 8 You leave the commandment of God and hold to the tradition of men.”

Now we come to the New Testament and there is not a hint that the Regulative Principle, so clearly articulated in the Old Testament, has been changed or that we now operate under a different principle. Obviously, some things have been changed such as sacrifices, the Temple, the priesthood and so on. But concerning those, we have a warrant to understand they’re done away with and fulfilled. But there is not a hint in the New Testament that God no longer regulates His worship or that God is no longer jealous for His worship.

The Jews in this passage were bringing a tradition of the elders to the same authority as the Scriptures. They required that they wash in a particular way before eating. Therefore, when they saw the disciples of our Lord eating with “defiled hands” they accused them of “not walk[ing] according to the tradition of the elders” (Mark 7:5). Our Lord’s response is cited above. The first accusation is that they’re hypocrites. They merely appear religious and try to be religious on the outside, but on the inside they’re false. They present themselves as devout to the Word of God, but pay more careful attention to the “tradition of men” than the “commandment of God”. They try to invent ways in pleasing and worshiping God. But God’s response to their innovations is that they are “vain”. This passage the Lord Jesus cites from Isaiah 29:13 from the LXX, which is slightly different from the Hebrew:

Isa 29:13 LXXE And the Lord has said, This people draw nigh to me with their mouth, and they honour me with their lips, but their heart is far from me: but in vain do they worship me, teaching the commandments and doctrines of men.

...

Review of Dean Davis' The High King of Heaven on Amillennialism

...ure of the Consummation.

The Judgment in Revelation 11

Rev 11:15 Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign forever and ever.” Rev 11:16 And the twenty-four elders who sit on their thrones before God fell on their faces and worshiped God, Rev 11:17 saying, “We give thanks to you, Lord God Almighty, who is and who was, for you have taken your great power and begun to reign. Rev 11:18 The nations raged, but your wrath came, and the time for the dead to be judged, and for rewarding your servants, the Prophets and saints, and those who fear your name, both small and great, and for destroying the destroyers of the earth.” Rev 11:19 Then God's temple in heaven was opened, and the ark of his covenant was seen within his temple. There were flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, an earthquake, and heavy hail.

Yet another beautiful picture of the Consummation and transformation (and glorification) of the world.

The judgment of God is spoken of as a past event, the nations were destroyed. The dead were judged. The slaves of God were rewarded.               

The Judgment in Revelation 14

Rev 14:14 Then I looked, and behold, a white cloud, and seated on the cloud one like a son of man, with a golden crown on his head, and a sharp sickle in his hand. Rev 14:15 And another angel came out of the temple, calling with a loud voice to him who sat on the cloud, “Put in your sickle, and reap, for the hour to reap has come, for the harvest of the earth is fully ripe.” Rev 14:16 So he who sat on the cloud swung his sickle across the earth, and the earth was reaped. Rev 14:17 Then another angel came out of the temple in heaven, and he too had a sharp sickle. Rev 14:18 And another angel came out from the altar, the angel who has authority over the fire, and he called with a loud voice to the one who had the sharp sickle, “Put in your sickle and gather the clusters from the vine of the earth, for its grapes are ripe.” Rev 14:19 So the angel swung his sickle across the earth and gathered the grape harvest of the earth and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. Rev 14:20 And the winepress was trodden outside the city, and blood flowed from the winepress, as high as a horse's bridle, for 1,600 stadia.

We have already seen the reference to the harvest in Matthew 13:24-30, 36-48 and the fact that it happens at the end of the age and also that it is the time of judgment.

The Judgment in Revelation 16

Rev 16:12 The sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water was dried up, to prepare the way for the kings from the east. Rev 16:13 And I saw, coming out of the mouth of the dragon and out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false Prophet, three unclean spirits like frogs. Rev 16:14 For they are demonic spirits, performing signs, who go abroad to the kings of the whole world, to assemble them for battle on the great day of God the Almighty. Rev 16:15 (“Behold, I am coming like a thief! Blessed is the one who stays awake, keeping his garments on, that he may not go about naked and be seen exposed!”) Rev 16:16 And they assembled them at the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon. Rev 16:17 The seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air, and a loud voice came out of the temple, from the throne, saying, “It is d...


1689 Baptist Confession Chapter 2: Of God and of the Holy Trinity - Commentary

...rit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.
  • Ps. 104:30 When you send forth your Spirit, they are created, and you renew the face of the ground. 
  • Job 33:4 The Spirit of God has made me, and the breath of the Almighty gives me life. 
  • The one who speaks the Word of God.
    • Acts 28:25-26 And disagreeing among themselves, they departed after Paul had made one statement: “The Holy Spirit was right in saying to your fathers through Isaiah the Prophet: 26 “‘Go to this people, and say, “You will indeed hear but never understand, and you will indeed see but never perceive.” 
      • It is the Lord who speaks in Isaiah 6:1, 11-12. The speech of the Lord is equated with what the Holy Spirit actually said.
    • Heb. 10:15-17 And the Holy Spirit also bears witness to us; for after saying, 16 “This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, declares the Lord: I will put my laws on their hearts, and write them on their minds,” 17 then he adds, “I will remember their sins and their lawless deeds no more.” 
      • Jer. 31:31-31 “Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah, 32 not like the covenant that I made with their fathers on the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant that they broke, though I was their husband, declares the LORD. 33 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the LORD: I will put my law within them, and I will write it on their hearts. And I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 34 And no longer shall each one teach his neighbor and each his brother, saying, ‘Know the LORD,’ for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest, declares the LORD. For I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.” 
      • The words of the LORD, Yahweh, are equated and are said to be spoken by the Holy Spirit, which implies that the Spirit is God and Yahweh.
    • Heb. 3:7 Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, “Today, if you hear his voice, 
      • Ps. 95:6-9 Oh come, let us worship and bow down; let us kneel before the LORD, our Maker! 7 For he is our God, and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand. Today, if you hear his voice, 8 do not harden your hearts, as at Meribah, as on the day at Massah in the wilderness, 9 when your fathers put me to the test and put me to the proof, though they had seen my work. 
        • Who did the Israelites put to the test but Yahweh? (Ps. 78:18; 40, 106:32)
  • He is the One who regenerates, the One who gives spiritual life.
    • John 3:6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
    • John 6:63 It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh is no help at all. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life. 
    • Titus 3:5 he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit, 
  • He is the One who gives physical life.
    • Job 27:3 as long as my breath is in me, and the spirit of God is in my nostrils, (cf. Job 32:8; 33:4; 34:14)
    • Ps. 104:30 When you send forth your Spirit, they are created, and you renew the face of the ground. 
  • The Holy Spirit is fully and completely God. He is called the Spirit of God (Gen. 1:2), Holy Spirit (Ps. 51:11), the Helper (John 14:16, 26), and Eternal Spirit (Heb. 9:14). H...